Coverage Technical Report, Census of Population, 2016
1. Estimates of population coverage errors

1.1 Introduction

The census defines the population to be counted and the rules by which the population is to be counted (see Section 3). Coverage errors occur when errors are made relative to these definitions and rules. The main sources of coverage errors include the failure to include a dwelling (and, in turn, failing to include its residents), and respondent error by not including all persons who should be included or by including persons who should not be included. This section presents estimates of 2016 Census population net undercoverage, undercoverage and overcoverage. Undercoverage and overcoverage may lead to bias in official counts and estimates because the characteristics of the persons not included may differ from those of persons who are included, and the characteristics of those counted more than once (duplicates) may differ from those of persons who were counted only once. Net undercoverage indicates the extent to which the number of enumerations included in census data is higher or lower than complete enumeration.

1.2 Net undercoverage

The 2016 Census population net undercoverage rate was estimated at 2.36%.Note 1 In other words, the difference between the number of persons who were not included in the census but were members of the census target population and the number of duplicates was estimated to be 2.36% of the census target population. The population undercoverage rate is estimated at 4.32% (1,557,061 persons), while the population overcoverage rate is estimated at 1.96% (707,335 persons). An undercoverage rate of 4.32% indicates that persons who were not included but who were part of the target population represent 4.32% of the census target population. An overcoverage rate of 1.96% indicates that duplicate enumerations represent 1.96% of the census target population.

The estimated undercoverage and overcoverage rates have both increased compared with the 2011 Census. The net undercoverage rate, which is the difference between undercoverage and overcoverage, increased slightly.

Since the primary goal of census coverage studies is always to produce the best coverage estimates possible for the most recent census, their methodology for the 2016 Census, as described in sections 7 and 8, has been improved. However, these improvements limit the comparability of these estimates with the 2011 net undercoverage estimates and partly explain the difference observed. In addition, since the net undercoverage estimates are measured from samples, the margin of error associated with the 2011 and 2016 estimates may also partly explain the difference.

Table 1.2a
Estimated rates of population coverage error and standard errors for Canada, 2011 and 2016 censuses
Table summary
This table displays the results of Estimated rates of population coverage error and standard errors for Canada. The information is grouped by Coverage error (appearing as row headers), 2011 Census, 2016 Census, Estimated
rate , Standard
error and Estimated
rate, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Coverage error 2011 Census 2016 Census
Estimated
rate
Standard
error
Estimated
rate
Standard
error
percent
Undercoverage 4.07 0.16 4.32 0.11
Overcoverage 1.85 0.02 1.96 0.04
Net undercoverage 2.22 0.16 2.36 0.12

This section presents estimates of net undercoverage based on the following geographic and demographic variables:

Table 1.2b provides an estimate of net undercoverage, standard errors related to the estimate, and the corresponding estimated net undercoverage rate and standard error for various characteristics. Negative net undercoverage estimates indicate that the overcoverage rate was higher than the undercoverage rate. For an explanation of how this can occur, see Section 9.

Table 1.2b
Estimated population net undercoverage and standard errors for various characteristics, 2016 Census
Table summary
This table displays the results of Estimated population net undercoverage and standard errors for various characteristics. The information is grouped by Characteristics (appearing as row headers), Population
net undercoverage and Population
net undercoverage rate (appearing as column headers).
Characteristics Population
net undercoverage
Population
net undercoverage rate
Estimated
number
Standard
error
Estimated
rate (%)
Standard
error (%)
Canada 849,726 43,844 2.36 0.12
Provinces and territories
Newfoundland and Labrador 9,774 2,015 1.85 0.37
Prince Edward Island 3,464 870 2.37 0.58
Nova Scotia 17,809 3,042 1.89 0.32
New Brunswick 15,735 2,777 2.06 0.36
Quebec 35,191 20,613 0.43 0.25
Ontario 381,542 33,316 2.76 0.23
Manitoba 31,895 4,829 2.43 0.36
Saskatchewan 34,844 4,651 3.07 0.40
Alberta 115,968 13,530 2.77 0.31
British Columbia 197,267 16,561 4.07 0.33
Yukon 2,370 191 6.20 0.47
Northwest Territories 2,939 257 6.57 0.54
Nunavut 929 229 2.52 0.61
Sex and age group
Both sexes 849,726 43,844 2.36 0.12
0 to 4 years 39,490 10,957 2.04 0.55
5 to 14 years -21,669 17,139 -0.55 0.44
15 to 17 years 13,248 10,734 1.10 0.88
18 to 19 years 38,895 12,407 4.44 1.35
20 to 24 years 146,524 16,731 6.13 0.66
25 to 34 years 316,263 24,223 6.41 0.46
35 to 44 years 186,685 20,988 3.95 0.43
45 to 54 years 138,593 21,814 2.68 0.41
55 to 64 years 37,802 22,145 0.76 0.44
65 years and older -46,105 18,152 -0.78 0.31
Males 593,549 37,058 3.32 0.20
0 to 4 years 26,543 7,531 2.66 0.73
5 to 14 years -23,070 12,405 -1.16 0.63
15 to 17 years 2,548 8,052 0.42 1.31
18 to 19 years 21,721 9,082 4.82 1.92
20 to 24 years 102,117 13,265 8.19 0.98
25 to 34 years 203,361 18,612 8.15 0.68
35 to 44 years 117,649 16,236 5.03 0.66
45 to 54 years 102,971 16,493 3.99 0.61
55 to 64 years 46,128 17,662 1.89 0.71
65 years and older -6,418 11,950 -0.24 0.45
Females 256,177 35,347 1.41 0.19
0 to 4 years 12,947 8,983 1.38 0.94
5 to 14 years 1,402 12,591 0.07 0.65
15 to 17 years 10,701 6,928 1.81 1.15
18 to 19 years 17,174 8,688 4.04 1.96
20 to 24 years 44,407 10,510 3.89 0.88
25 to 34 years 112,901 15,678 4.64 0.61
35 to 44 years 69,036 13,705 2.89 0.56
45 to 54 years 35,622 15,089 1.37 0.57
55 to 64 years -8,326 13,557 -0.33 0.54
65 years and older -39,687 14,183 -1.24 0.45
Marital status and sex for persons aged 15 years and older
Both sexes 831,905 41,831 2.76 0.13
Married (not separated) 68,469 26,934 0.51 0.20
Common law 73,765 16,456 2.06 0.45
Single (never legally married) 555,623 31,295 6.31 0.33
Separated 94,350 15,674 11.61 1.70
Divorced 28,443 13,364 1.54 0.71
Widowed 11,254 13,635 0.69 0.83
Males 590,076 35,333 3.97 0.23
Married (not separated) 69,986 19,599 1.03 0.29
Common law 47,907 12,563 2.65 0.68
Single (never legally married) 360,923 24,751 7.51 0.48
Separated 66,411 13,519 17.65 2.96
Divorced 36,658 9,814 4.81 1.23
Widowed 8,193 5,485 2.36 1.54
Females 241,829 32,755 1.58 0.21
Married (not separated) -1,516 19,369 -0.02 0.29
Common law 25,859 11,561 1.45 0.64
Single (never legally married) 194,701 22,908 4.86 0.54
Separated 27,940 8,965 6.40 1.92
Divorced -8,215 8,905 -0.76 0.83
Widowed 3,061 12,314 0.24 0.95
Mother tongue
Total 849,726 43,844 2.36 0.12
English 365,400 35,034 1.79 0.17
French 3,256 20,318 0.04 0.27
Non-official language 481,070 30,079 5.88 0.35
Census metropolitan area (CMA)
St. John's 4,316 1,473 2.05 0.69
Halifax 9,601 2,410 2.32 0.57
Moncton 1,619 1,557 1.11 1.05
Saint John 5,164 1,681 3.93 1.23
Saguenay 3,381 4,576 2.06 2.73
Québec -16,916 6,237 -2.16 0.81
Sherbrooke -1,796 4,354 -0.85 2.09
Trois-Rivières 1,163 4,143 0.74 2.62
Montréal 44,633 17,183 1.08 0.41
Ottawa–Gatineau 1,733 10,310 0.13 0.78
Kingston 4,609 4,470 2.78 2.62
Belleville 4,155 3,231 3.86 2.89
Peterborough -4,350 2,185 -3.71 1.93
Oshawa 14,914 8,303 3.78 2.02
Toronto 262,847 26,870 4.25 0.42
Hamilton 12,403 10,987 1.63 1.42
St. Catharines–Niagara 10,746 8,698 2.58 2.03
Kitchener–Cambridge–Waterloo 12,326 7,410 2.30 1.35
Brantford -296 3,291 -0.22 2.46
Guelph 2,877 3,892 1.86 2.47
London 5,928 6,659 1.19 1.32
Windsor 8,383 6,703 2.48 1.94
Barrie 4,978 4,324 2.46 2.09
Greater Sudbury -934 3,182 -0.57 1.95
Thunder Bay 6,668 4,455 5.20 3.29
Winnipeg 11,143 4,093 1.41 0.51
Regina 5,060 2,403 2.09 0.97
Saskatoon 12,047 3,224 3.92 1.01
Lethbridge -938 2,645 -0.81 2.29
Calgary 28,409 8,971 2.00 0.62
Edmonton 27,659 8,722 2.05 0.63
Kelowna 6,145 3,886 3.06 1.87
Abbotsford–Mission 8,807 3,800 4.65 1.91
Vancouver 111,040 14,245 4.31 0.53
Victoria 18,107 6,127 4.69 1.51
All CMAs 625,631 40,612 2.45 0.15
Outside a CMA 224,096 29,333 2.15 0.28

The standard error provides an indication of the accuracy of sampling-based estimates. An interval covering two standard errors on both sides of the estimate includes the correct value 19 times out of 20. In other words, there are approximately 19 chances out of 20 (95%) that the actual population net undercoverage rate for the 2016 Census was between 2.12% and 2.60% (i.e., 2.36% ± two standard errors), or about 2 chances out of 3 (68%) that the actual rate was between 2.24% and 2.48% (i.e., 2.36% ± one standard error).

Since net undercoverage reflects both undercoverage and overcoverage, the reader should also consult the undercoverage and overcoverage estimates in Table 1.3. A low net undercoverage rate, for example, may reflect a low undercoverage rate, or a high undercoverage rate combined with a high overcoverage rate.

The highest population net undercoverage rates in the country were observed in two of the three territories: the Northwest Territories, which had the highest rate (6.57%), followed by Yukon (6.20%). Among the provinces, British Columbia had the highest net undercoverage rate, 4.07%, followed by Saskatchewan (3.07%), Alberta (2.77%) and Ontario (2.76%). Quebec had the lowest population net undercoverage rate, at 0.43%, followed by Newfoundland and Labrador (1.85%) and Nova Scotia (1.89%). In 2011, the highest rates were observed in the three territories, while New Brunswick had the lowest rate. As previously mentioned, improvements made to the methodology of the 2016 Census coverage studies limit the comparability of estimates with those of 2011 net undercoverage.

Population net undercoverage was generally higher for males, and highest for young adults. The net undercoverage rate for males was more than twice the rate for females, 3.32% compared with 1.41%. In the general population, net undercoverage was highest in the 20 to 34 age group for both men and women. It stood at 6.13% among persons aged 20 to 24, and 6.41% among those aged 25 to 34. For men, the highest net undercoverage rate was 8.19% among men aged 20 to 24, and 8.15% among men aged 25 to 34. For women, this rate reached 4.64% among those aged 25 to 34. Contrary to what was observed among men, the net undercoverage rate of women aged 20 to 24 was quite similar to the rate noted for women aged 18 to 19 (3.89%, compared with 4.04%). For women aged 55 and older and men aged 65 and older, the net undercoverage rate was negative, which indicates more excess enumerations than persons who were not enumerated.

The net undercoverage rate of the population aged 15 and older was higher for separated persons (11.61%), especially for males (17.65%). It was also high for single persons (6.31%), i.e., persons who had never legally married and who were not in a common-law union.

The net undercoverage rate for those whose mother tongue is English was higher than for those whose mother tongue is French (1.79%, compared with 0.04%). The net undercoverage rate for allophones, persons whose mother tongue is neither English nor French, was higher (5.88%).

Net population undercoverage was slightly more frequent in CMAs than outside them. Nationally, net undercoverage was 2.45% for those who should have been enumerated in CMAs. This was slightly higher than the net undercoverage rate for those not living in a CMA (2.15%). Only Manitoba and Alberta had a higher rate outside CMAs than within them.

1.3 Undercoverage

Undercoverage generally referred to persons who were not included as usual residents in the questionnaire that was completed for their usual residence, or persons for whom no questionnaire was completed for their usual residence. For example, persons who regarded their residence as temporary may not have been included as usual residents elsewhere. Persons without a usual place of residence (e.g., the homeless) were also much more subject to undercoverage.

This section presents undercoverage estimates based on the following geographic and demographic variables:

Table 1.3 provides the estimated undercoverage regarding the number of persons not included, the standard error of the estimate, the corresponding estimated undercoverage rate, and its standard error. In some instances, undercoverage estimates are negative (e.g., ‑1,269 persons in the Peterborough CMA). For an explanation of how this can occur, see Section 9.

Table 1.3
Estimated population undercoverage and overcoverage and standard errors for various characteristics, 2016 Census
Table summary
This table displays the results of Estimated population undercoverage and overcoverage and standard errors for various characteristics. The information is grouped by Characteristics (appearing as row headers), Population undercoverage and Population overcoverage (appearing as column headers).
Characteristics Population undercoverage Population overcoverage
Estimated
number
Standard
error
Estimated
rate (%)
Standard
error (%)
Estimated
number
Standard
error
Estimated
rate (%)
Standard
error (%)
Canada 1,557,061 41,050 4.32 0.11 707,335 15,401 1.96 0.04
Provinces and territories
Newfoundland and Labrador 20,848 1,982 3.94 0.36 11,074 364 2.09 0.07
Prince Edward Island 5,875 864 4.01 0.57 2,412 100 1.65 0.07
Nova Scotia 34,872 2,965 3.70 0.30 17,063 684 1.81 0.07
New Brunswick 32,382 2,701 4.24 0.34 16,647 644 2.18 0.08
Quebec 211,077 18,074 2.57 0.21 175,886 9,911 2.15 0.12
Ontario 640,831 31,508 4.63 0.22 259,289 10,826 1.87 0.08
Manitoba 51,742 4,772 3.95 0.35 19,847 736 1.51 0.06
Saskatchewan 56,494 4,375 4.99 0.37 21,651 1,579 1.91 0.14
Alberta 188,706 13,293 4.51 0.30 72,739 2,522 1.74 0.06
British Columbia 305,948 16,215 6.31 0.31 108,681 3,366 2.24 0.07
Yukon 3,219 188 8.42 0.45 849 32 2.22 0.08
Northwest Territories 3,500 255 7.83 0.53 561 29 1.25 0.06
Nunavut 1,565 228 4.25 0.59 636 27 1.73 0.07
Sex and age group
Both sexes 1,557,061 41,050 4.32 0.11 707,335 15,401 1.96 0.04
0 to 4 years 73,537 10,269 3.79 0.51 34,047 3,823 1.76 0.19
5 to 14 years 115,279 15,125 2.94 0.37 136,948 8,061 3.49 0.20
15 to 17 years 52,294 9,823 4.35 0.78 39,046 4,328 3.25 0.35
18 to 19 years 67,506 11,878 7.71 1.25 28,612 3,586 3.27 0.40
20 to 24 years 230,347 15,422 9.64 0.58 83,822 6,488 3.51 0.26
25 to 34 years 424,019 22,742 8.60 0.42 107,757 8,342 2.19 0.17
35 to 44 years 239,817 20,305 5.07 0.41 53,132 5,310 1.12 0.11
45 to 54 years 199,652 21,216 3.86 0.39 61,059 5,073 1.18 0.10
55 to 64 years 109,145 21,011 2.21 0.42 71,343 6,995 1.44 0.14
65 years and older 45,465 17,172 0.77 0.29 91,570 5,885 1.55 0.10
Males 941,799 34,853 5.27 0.18 348,250 12,593 1.95 0.07
0 to 4 years 42,169 7,140 4.22 0.68 15,626 2,397 1.56 0.24
5 to 14 years 46,881 10,944 2.35 0.54 69,951 5,842 3.50 0.28
15 to 17 years 27,918 7,153 4.55 1.11 25,370 3,696 4.14 0.58
18 to 19 years 33,232 8,857 7.38 1.82 11,511 2,008 2.56 0.44
20 to 24 years 142,866 12,392 11.46 0.88 40,749 4,731 3.27 0.37
25 to 34 years 260,481 17,559 10.44 0.63 57,119 6,169 2.29 0.24
35 to 44 years 145,997 15,790 6.24 0.63 28,349 3,778 1.21 0.16
45 to 54 years 133,156 16,114 5.16 0.59 30,185 3,514 1.17 0.13
55 to 64 years 76,049 16,959 3.11 0.67 29,921 4,931 1.22 0.20
65 years and older 33,050 11,254 1.23 0.41 39,468 4,019 1.47 0.15
Females 615,262 33,151 3.39 0.18 359,085 12,265 1.98 0.07
0 to 4 years 31,368 8,465 3.34 0.87 18,421 3,005 1.96 0.31
5 to 14 years 68,398 11,173 3.56 0.56 66,996 5,806 3.49 0.29
15 to 17 years 24,376 6,540 4.13 1.06 13,675 2,287 2.32 0.38
18 to 19 years 34,274 8,159 8.07 1.77 17,100 2,988 4.02 0.68
20 to 24 years 87,480 9,473 7.66 0.77 43,073 4,551 3.77 0.38
25 to 34 years 163,539 14,560 6.71 0.56 50,637 5,813 2.08 0.23
35 to 44 years 93,820 13,180 3.93 0.53 24,784 3,759 1.04 0.16
45 to 54 years 66,496 14,635 2.56 0.55 30,874 3,675 1.19 0.14
55 to 64 years 33,096 12,585 1.32 0.50 41,422 5,042 1.66 0.20
65 years and older 12,415 13,484 0.39 0.42 52,102 4,398 1.63 0.14
Marital status and sex for persons aged 15 years and older
Both sexes 1,368,245 39,208 4.54 0.12 536,340 14,579 1.78 0.05
Married (not separated) 256,069 25,184 1.90 0.18 187,600 9,550 1.39 0.07
Common law 128,097 15,578 3.57 0.42 54,332 5,304 1.52 0.15
Single (never legally married) 786,318 29,629 8.93 0.31 230,695 10,077 2.62 0.11
Separated 105,874 15,446 13.03 1.65 11,523 2,665 1.42 0.32
Divorced 53,142 12,934 2.88 0.68 24,700 3,362 1.34 0.18
Widowed 38,744 13,284 2.36 0.79 27,491 3,074 1.68 0.18
Males 852,749 33,437 5.74 0.21 262,673 11,418 1.77 0.08
Married (not separated) 160,201 18,513 2.37 0.27 90,216 6,433 1.33 0.09
Common law 73,759 12,009 4.08 0.64 25,852 3,687 1.43 0.20
Single (never legally married) 487,170 23,395 10.14 0.44 126,248 8,079 2.63 0.16
Separated 72,153 13,337 19.17 2.87 5,742 2,212 1.53 0.58
Divorced 47,567 9,613 6.24 1.18 10,909 1,979 1.43 0.26
Widowed 11,899 5,451 3.42 1.51 3,706 607 1.07 0.17
Females 515,496 30,822 3.37 0.19 273,668 11,087 1.79 0.07
Married (not separated) 95,868 17,884 1.43 0.26 97,384 7,439 1.46 0.11
Common law 54,338 10,883 3.06 0.59 28,480 3,901 1.60 0.22
Single (never legally married) 299,148 21,936 7.47 0.51 104,447 6,602 2.61 0.16
Separated 33,720 8,840 7.73 1.87 5,781 1,487 1.32 0.34
Divorced 5,576 8,477 0.52 0.78 13,791 2,730 1.27 0.25
Widowed 26,846 11,939 2.08 0.90 23,785 3,015 1.84 0.23
Mother tongue
Total 1,557,061 41,050 4.32 0.11 707,335 15,401 1.96 0.04
English 757,966 33,420 3.71 0.16 392,566 10,514 1.92 0.05
French 169,888 17,760 2.29 0.23 166,632 9,871 2.25 0.13
Non-official language 629,206 28,795 7.69 0.33 148,137 8,694 1.81 0.10
Census metropolitan area (CMA)
St. John's 9,638 1,432 4.58 0.65 5,322 347 2.53 0.16
Halifax 15,829 2,388 3.83 0.56 6,228 329 1.51 0.08
Moncton 4,573 1,535 3.12 1.02 2,954 261 2.02 0.18
Saint John 7,647 1,667 5.82 1.19 2,483 220 1.89 0.17
Saguenay 7,591 4,265 4.62 2.48 4,210 1,657 2.56 0.98
Québec 653 5,225 0.08 0.67 17,569 3,405 2.24 0.43
Sherbrooke 3,850 3,866 1.83 1.80 5,646 2,005 2.68 0.93
Trois-Rivières 5,611 3,719 3.57 2.28 4,448 1,825 2.83 1.13
Montréal 124,215 15,608 3.00 0.37 79,582 7,186 1.92 0.17
Ottawa–Gatineau 24,514 9,599 1.85 0.71 22,781 3,762 1.72 0.28
Kingston 7,695 4,318 4.64 2.48 3,086 1,155 1.86 0.69
Belleville 4,900 3,220 4.55 2.86 746 264 0.69 0.24
Peterborough -1,269 1,820 -1.08 1.57 3,080 1,208 2.62 1.00
Oshawa 19,520 8,162 4.94 1.97 4,606 1,524 1.17 0.38
Toronto 382,488 25,610 6.18 0.39 119,640 8,131 1.93 0.13
Hamilton 28,323 10,108 3.73 1.28 15,920 4,305 2.09 0.56
St. Catharines–Niagara 18,437 8,457 4.42 1.94 7,691 2,031 1.85 0.48
Kitchener–Cambridge–Waterloo 22,306 6,944 4.16 1.24 9,980 2,585 1.86 0.47
Brantford 2,290 3,078 1.71 2.26 2,587 1,164 1.93 0.85
Guelph 5,376 3,730 3.47 2.33 2,499 1,111 1.61 0.71
London 12,970 6,373 2.59 1.24 7,042 1,929 1.41 0.38
Windsor 12,478 6,506 3.70 1.86 4,095 1,614 1.21 0.47
Barrie 7,773 4,156 3.85 1.98 2,795 1,194 1.38 0.58
Greater Sudbury 2,034 2,895 1.24 1.75 2,968 1,322 1.81 0.79
Thunder Bay 9,057 4,322 7.06 3.13 2,390 1,080 1.86 0.83
Winnipeg 22,401 4,023 2.84 0.50 11,258 751 1.43 0.09
Regina 9,379 2,380 3.88 0.95 4,319 334 1.79 0.14
Saskatoon 16,833 3,209 5.48 0.99 4,786 308 1.56 0.10
Lethbridge 1,183 2,607 1.02 2.22 2,122 449 1.82 0.38
Calgary 53,538 8,786 3.77 0.60 25,129 1,811 1.77 0.13
Edmonton 51,690 8,495 3.83 0.61 24,031 1,975 1.78 0.14
Kelowna 10,629 3,765 5.29 1.77 4,483 964 2.23 0.47
Abbotsford–Mission 13,428 3,706 7.09 1.82 4,621 837 2.44 0.43
Vancouver 170,896 13,974 6.64 0.51 59,856 2,764 2.32 0.11
Victoria 27,171 6,017 7.04 1.45 9,064 1,158 2.35 0.30
All CMAs 1,115,647 38,308 4.36 0.14 490,016 13,486 1.92 0.05
Outside a CMA 441,414 27,683 4.23 0.25 217,318 9,699 2.08 0.09

There were some demographic trends in undercoverage. The rate of undercoverage for males was more than one-and-a-half times the rate for females, or 5.27% compared with 3.39%. The undercoverage rate was highest for young adults aged 18 to 34 (men and women). Among young men, undercoverage was 11.46% for those aged 20 to 24 and 10.44% for those aged 25 to 34.

In terms of marital status, undercoverage was highest among those aged 15 or older who were separated and not in a common-law union, at 13.03%. It was also high for single persons not in a common-law union, at 8.93%. In both cases, these rates were higher for men than for women.

Table 1.3 shows that the persons most likely to have been missed in the 2016 Census were men aged 18 to 34 who were single (who were never married and not in a common-law union), and separated persons. Mother tongue was also significant for undercoverage rates because undercoverage rates were lower among those whose first language was French (2.29%), followed by those whose first language was English (3.71%). For persons whose mother tongue was neither English nor French, the rate was even higher, at 7.69%.

1.4 Overcoverage

Population overcoverage is the number of excess enumerations in the census counts for persons enumerated more than once (usually twice). This error produces bias because these persons should have been enumerated only once. Examples of overcoverage include children whose parents live separately who were included on each parent’s census questionnaire, persons who do not live with their family for work reasons who are listed on their family’s form and also on the form for the dwelling they live in while working, and students away at school who are listed both by their roommates and by their parents.

This section presents estimates of overcoverage based on the following geographic and demographic variables:

Table 1.3 also contains estimates of the number of excess enumerations and the associated standard error.

The standard errors for overcoverage estimates found in Table 1.3 were lower than those for undercoverage. As indicated below, certain demographic trends emerged from overcoverage estimates.

Across the provinces and territories, the estimated overcoverage rate varied less than the estimated undercoverage rate. In fact, the gap between the lowest rate and the highest rate among all provinces and territories was 0.99 percentage points for overcoverage (with the rate varying between 1.25% and 2.24%), whereas this gap was 5.85 percentage points for undercoverage (with the rate varying between 2.57% and 8.42%). Males and females had similar overcoverage rates, at 1.95% compared with 1.98%. Overcoverage was higher for children and young adults aged 5 to 24. As mentioned, these high rates were largely attributable to multiple enumerations of children in shared custody and students.

For marital status, the overcoverage rate was higher for persons who had never been married and who were not in a common-law union (2.45%). This phenomenon was observed equally among women and men, and was consistent with the results by age.

In summary, Table 1.3 presents the profile of persons most likely to be counted more than once; they were equally likely to be male or female, and more likely to be a child or a young adult. For persons aged 15 and older, single persons were more likely to be counted more than once.

Notes

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