2006 Census Topic-based tabulations

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Topic-based tabulation: Wage and Salary Groups (23) in Constant (2005) Dollars, Age Groups (9A), Work Activity in the Reference Year (3) and Sex (3) for the Paid Workers 15 Years and Over of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2000 and 2005 - 20% Sample Data

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General information

Catalogue number :97-563-XCB2006068
Release date :September 30, 2008
Topic :Income and earnings
Data dimensions :


Note: Data Quality - Historical earnings and income data and outliers

Changes in methodology and response modes introduced in the 2006 Census resulted in improved income data. However, these changes also mean that some comparisons with data from previous censuses and some data for the highest earnings and income amounts are affected.

For the 2006 Census, changes to methods for capturing and processing the 2006 Census income data and the introduction of data from tax files may have an impact on the trends analysis for earnings at the individual level in particular (but also total income).

There are more reported small amounts in 2006 and less rounding of the amounts that now come from tax data. To compare from census to census, users are advised to consider full-year full-time earners as the presence of more small amounts tends to lower the mean and median when considering the full population of earners.

As in the past, when considering small populations, one or more outliers may affect the average. In regions with sampling, this makes the estimate of the mean unreliable because of the variance due to sampling for smaller populations. The standard error of the average should help identify these situations. With extremely small populations, the median might also be affected by the presence of outliers. Users are required to interpret data with caution when the sub-population has small or very small counts.

Note: Data Quality - Relationship of Census Income Estimates to the National Accounts and Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics

Census income estimates of aggregate income in 2005 were compared to similar personal income estimates from the national accounts. After adjustments to the personal income estimates for differences in concepts and coverage, the census estimate of aggregate income in 2005 from comparable sources was 1.2% lower than the national accounts estimate. As in the past, census estimates for some income components and for some provinces compared more favourably than for others.

Census estimates of aggregate wages and salaries, the largest component of income, were slightly higher (1.0%) than the national accounts estimates. This was partially offset by the difference (-7.8%) between the census estimates of aggregate self-employment income from both farm and non-farm self-employment and the adjusted national accounts figures. Overall, estimates of aggregate employment income or earnings were nearly identical (0.3% difference).

Census estimates of Old Age Security pensions and the Guaranteed Income Supplement were slightly lower (-1.4%), as they were for Canada/Quebec Pension Plan benefits (-0.9%), than adjusted national accounts estimates. Employment Insurance benefits reported in the census were smaller by 6.1%. Census estimates of aggregate child benefits were 2.0% higher than the adjusted national accounts estimates. Census estimates of other government transfer payments, which include such items as social welfare benefits, provincial income supplements to seniors, veterans' pensions and GST/HST/QST refunds, were significantly below (-39.2%) the estimates from the national accounts. Overall, census estimates of aggregate income from all government transfer payments were lower by 12.0%. The census estimate of aggregate investment income in 2005 was slightly lower (-2.7%) than the comparable national accounts estimate. This is a significant improvement when compared to previous census comparisons.

Census income statistics were also compared with similar statistics from the annual Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID). SLID estimates reflect adjustments made for population undercoverage, while census estimates do not include such an adjustment. This adjustment contributes to census estimates showing fewer income recipients (-2.1%) and earners (-1.4%) than SLID estimates. However, due to higher average amounts, census estimates of aggregate earnings are 2.8% higher than the SLID estimate, while the census estimate of aggregate total income of individuals is 2.3% higher. Most of the observed provincial differences were considered acceptable in the light of sampling errors in the Survey. The all-person low income prevalence rates for Canada (excluding the Territories) were almost identical in both sources for the before-tax measure at 15.3% and only slightly higher (0.6 percentage points) in census than SLID for the after-tax rate.

Note: Consistency of earnings and labour estimates

Changes to the collection methodology for income data and to the editing procedures create an apparent inconsistency for more records in 2006 compared to 2001. For example, a larger amount of full-year, full-time workers (or part-year workers) are without reported earnings. There are also more persons with earnings that do not report work activity during the previous calendar year.

These impacts are also visible for wages and salaries and net income from self-employment.

For more information, please consult the Income and Earnings Reference Guide, 2006 Census, Catalogue no. 97-563-GWE2006003.

Note: Earnings historical variations

Due to improved collection methodology, income and earnings data from the 2006 Census is more complete, precise and less subject to rounding than in prior censuses. Small dollar amounts, which in the past may not have been reported, are now more likely to be captured. Compared to prior censuses, this has resulted in an increased number of earners and lower median and average earnings. Users are advised to exercise caution when interpreting census-to-census changes in statistics and counts of specific cells within an earnings distribution. This comparability issue is less apparent when considering the earnings of full-year, full-time workers.

Note: Historical comparison of census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations, 2001 and 2006

A few census metropolitan areas (CMAs) and census agglomerations (CAs) have different geographical boundaries in 2006 as compared to 2001. In order to facilitate data comparisons, the 2001 CMA and CA data have been adjusted to reflect as closely as possible the 2006 CMA and CA boundaries. Care should then be taken when looking at the 2001 Census data. For additional information, please refer to the 2006 Census Dictionary, catalogue number 92-566-XWE.

Note: Income Data for Seniors in Collective Dwellings

In the 2006 Census, individuals who resided in institutions or residences with distinct, separate living quarters, and who were able to complete the census questionnaire, received their own census form to complete. These individuals were excluded from measurements of income in prior censuses. This census their incomes have been set to zero. This results in a slight overestimation in the count of population 15 years and over, and primarily the age group 65 years and over, without income (or without earnings). Counts and income statistics for families or persons not in families are not affected, as individuals in these types of collective dwellings have always, and continue to be excluded from those populations.

Note: Income suppression

Area suppression is the deletion of all characteristic data for geographic areas with populations below a specified size. Income distributions and related statistics are suppressed if the population in the area, excluding institutional residents, is less than 250 from either the 100% or the 20% database, or if the number of private households is less than 40 from the 20% database.

Tables with income, after-tax income or earnings distributions

Income, after-tax income and earnings distributions have been suppressed where the estimated total number of units (persons, families or households) in the reference year is less than 250. All suppressed cells and associated averages, medians and standard errors of average income, average after-tax income or average earnings have been replaced with zeroes or symbols.

In all cases, suppressed data are included in the appropriate higher aggregate subtotals and totals.

Tables with number and median or average income, after-tax income or earnings

Statistics have been suppressed if the estimated total number of persons (males, females or both sexes) with income, after-tax income or earnings in the reference year is less than 250 persons. All suppressed counts and associated averages and medians have been replaced by zeroes or symbols.

In all cases, suppressed data are included in the appropriate higher aggregate subtotals and totals.

Note: Institutional residents

People in seniors' residences in the 2006 Census are classified as 'not living in an institution'. This is a change from the 2001 Census where they were classified as institutional residents, specifically, 'living in an institution, resident under care or custody'.

Note: Non-permanent residents and the census universe

In the 2006 Census, non-permanent residents are defined as people from another country who, at the time of the census, held a Work or Study Permit, or who were refugee claimants, as well as family members living in Canada with them. In the 1991, 1996 and 2001 censuses, non-permanent residents also included persons who held a Minister's permit; this was discontinued by Citizenship and Immigration Canada prior to the 2006 Census.

From 1991 on, the Census of Population has enumerated both permanent and non-permanent residents of Canada. Prior to 1991, only permanent residents of Canada were included in the census. (The only exception to this occurred in 1941.) Non-permanent residents were considered foreign residents and were not enumerated.

Total population counts, as well as counts for all variables, are affected by this change in the census universe. Users should be especially careful when comparing data from 1991, 1996, 2001 or 2006 with data from previous censuses in geographic areas where there is a concentration of non-permanent residents.

Today in Canada, non-permanent residents make up a significant segment of the population, especially in several census metropolitan areas. Their presence can affect the demand for such government services as health care, schooling, employment programs and language training. The inclusion of non-permanent residents in the census facilitates comparisons with provincial and territorial statistics (marriages, divorces, births and deaths) which include this population. In addition, this inclusion of non-permanent residents brings Canadian practice closer to the United Nations (UN) recommendation that long-term residents (persons living in a country for one year or longer) be enumerated in the census.

Although every attempt has been made to enumerate non-permanent residents, factors such as language difficulties, the reluctance to complete a government form or to understand the need to participate may have affected the enumeration of this population.

For additional information, please refer to the 2006 Census Dictionary, catalogue number 92-566-XWE.

For counts of the non-permanent resident population in 1991, 2001 and 2006, please refer to the 2006 Census table 97-557-XCB2006006.

Additional information about this table is available in the Dimension Summary Box of the variable in the column (initial view).

Data table

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This table details wage and salary groups in constant dollars, age groups , work activity in the reference year and sex for the paid workers 15 years and over in CanadaFootnote 1
Wage and salary groups (23) Year (2)
2000Footnote 2 2005Footnote 3
Total - Wage and salary groupsFootnote 4 15,534,890 16,976,015
Without wages and salaries 849,100 1,418,085
With wages and salaries 14,685,785 15,557,925
Under $2,000 840,255 745,995
$2,000 to $4,999 957,745 981,795
$5,000 to $6,999 605,440 616,430
$7,000 to $9,999 669,845 867,855
$10,000 to $11,999 535,145 531,940
$12,000 to $14,999 647,695 728,090
$15,000 to $19,999 975,880 1,139,455
$20,000 to $24,999 1,157,110 1,096,650
$25,000 to $29,999 1,014,890 1,068,420
$30,000 to $34,999 1,202,165 1,099,100
$35,000 to $39,999 911,415 989,345
$40,000 to $44,999 1,025,050 901,645
$45,000 to $49,999 552,355 764,510
$50,000 to $59,999 1,245,585 1,200,975
$60,000 to $69,999 848,915 908,485
$70,000 to $79,999 525,955 639,050
$80,000 and over 970,330 1,278,170
Median wages and salaries $Footnote 5 29,267 29,968
Average wages and salaries $Footnote 6 36,097 38,226
Standard error of average wages and salaries $Footnote 7 26 35


Footnote 1

Excludes census data for one or more incompletely enumerated Indian reserves or Indian settlements.

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Footnote 2

Canadian censuses were conducted in 2001 and 2006. Income data from these censuses relate to the calendar year prior to the census year, i.e., 2000 and 2005 respectively. For additional information, please refer to the 2006 Census Dictionary, Catalogue no. 92-566-XWE.

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Footnote 3

Canadian censuses were conducted in 2001 and 2006. Income data from these censuses relate to the calendar year prior to the census year, i.e., 2000 and 2005 respectively. For additional information, please refer to the 2006 Census Dictionary, Catalogue no. 92-566-XWE.

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Footnote 4

Wages and salaries - Refers to gross wages and salaries before deductions for such items as income tax, pensions and Employment Insurance. Included in this source are military pay and allowances, tips, commissions and cash bonuses, benefits from wage-loss replacement plans or income-maintenance insurance plans, supplementary unemployment benefits from an employer or union as well as all types of casual earnings during calendar year 2005. Other employment income such as taxable benefits, research grants and royalties are included.

Receipts not counted as income - The income concept excludes gambling gains and losses, lottery prizes, money inherited during the year in a lump sum, capital gains or losses, receipts from the sale of property, income tax refunds, loan payments received, lump-sum settlements of insurance policies, rebates received on property taxes, refunds of pension contributions, as well as all income 'in kind,' such as free meals and living accommodations, or agricultural products produced and consumed on the farm.

Average income of individuals - Average income of individuals refers to the weighted mean total income of individuals 15 years of age and over who reported income for 2005. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of individuals (e.g., males 45 to 54 years of age) by the number of individuals with income in that group.

Median income of individuals - The median income of a specified group of income recipients is that amount which divides their income size distribution into two halves, i.e., the incomes of the first half of individuals are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median income is calculated from the unrounded number of individuals (e.g., males 45 to 54 years of age) with income in that group.

Standard error of average income - Refers to the estimated standard error of average income for an income size distribution. If interpreted as shown below, it serves as a rough indicator of the precision of the corresponding estimate of average income. For about 68% of the samples which could be selected from the sample frame, the difference between the sample estimate of average income and the corresponding figure based on complete enumeration would be less than one standard error. For about 95% of the possible samples, the difference would be less than two standard errors and, in about 99% of the samples, the difference would be approximately two and one half standard errors.

Average and median incomes and standard errors for average income of individuals will be calculated for those individuals who are at least 15 years of age and who have an income (positive or negative). For all other universes (families (census/economic), persons not in families or private households), these statistics will be calculated over all units, whether or not they reported any income.

These statistics can be derived for after-tax income, earnings, wages and salaries, or any other particular source of income in the same manner.

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Footnote 5

For persons with wages and salaries.

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Footnote 6

For persons with wages and salaries.

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Footnote 7

For persons with wages and salaries.

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Source: Statistics Canada, 2006 Census of Population, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 97-563-XCB2006068.


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Footnote a

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Footnote b

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Footnote c

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Footnote d

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