2006 Census Topic-based tabulations

Archived Content

Information identified as archived is provided for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. It is not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards and has not been altered or updated since it was archived. Please contact us to request a format other than those available.

Topic-based tabulation: After-tax Income Groups (22), Age Groups (7A), Highest Certificate, Diploma or Degree (6) and Sex (3) for the Population 15 Years and Over of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2005 - 20% Sample Data

About this tabulation

General information

Catalogue number :97-563-XCB2006011
Release date :September 30, 2008
Topic :Income and earnings
Data dimensions :


Note: Data Quality - Historical earnings and income data and outliers

Changes in methodology and response modes introduced in the 2006 Census resulted in improved income data. However, these changes also mean that some comparisons with data from previous censuses and some data for the highest earnings and income amounts are affected.

For the 2006 Census, changes to methods for capturing and processing the 2006 Census income data and the introduction of data from tax files may have an impact on the trends analysis for earnings at the individual level in particular (but also total income).

There are more reported small amounts in 2006 and less rounding of the amounts that now come from tax data. To compare from census to census, users are advised to consider full-year full-time earners as the presence of more small amounts tends to lower the mean and median when considering the full population of earners.

As in the past, when considering small populations, one or more outliers may affect the average. In regions with sampling, this makes the estimate of the mean unreliable because of the variance due to sampling for smaller populations. The standard error of the average should help identify these situations. With extremely small populations, the median might also be affected by the presence of outliers. Users are required to interpret data with caution when the sub-population has small or very small counts.

Note: Data Quality - Relationship of Census Income Estimates to the National Accounts and Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics

Census income estimates of aggregate income in 2005 were compared to similar personal income estimates from the national accounts. After adjustments to the personal income estimates for differences in concepts and coverage, the census estimate of aggregate income in 2005 from comparable sources was 1.2% lower than the national accounts estimate. As in the past, census estimates for some income components and for some provinces compared more favourably than for others.

Census estimates of aggregate wages and salaries, the largest component of income, were slightly higher (1.0%) than the national accounts estimates. This was partially offset by the difference (-7.8%) between the census estimates of aggregate self-employment income from both farm and non-farm self-employment and the adjusted national accounts figures. Overall, estimates of aggregate employment income or earnings were nearly identical (0.3% difference).

Census estimates of Old Age Security pensions and the Guaranteed Income Supplement were slightly lower (-1.4%), as they were for Canada/Quebec Pension Plan benefits (-0.9%), than adjusted national accounts estimates. Employment Insurance benefits reported in the census were smaller by 6.1%. Census estimates of aggregate child benefits were 2.0% higher than the adjusted national accounts estimates. Census estimates of other government transfer payments, which include such items as social welfare benefits, provincial income supplements to seniors, veterans' pensions and GST/HST/QST refunds, were significantly below (-39.2%) the estimates from the national accounts. Overall, census estimates of aggregate income from all government transfer payments were lower by 12.0%. The census estimate of aggregate investment income in 2005 was slightly lower (-2.7%) than the comparable national accounts estimate. This is a significant improvement when compared to previous census comparisons.

Census income statistics were also compared with similar statistics from the annual Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID). SLID estimates reflect adjustments made for population undercoverage, while census estimates do not include such an adjustment. This adjustment contributes to census estimates showing fewer income recipients (-2.1%) and earners (-1.4%) than SLID estimates. However, due to higher average amounts, census estimates of aggregate earnings are 2.8% higher than the SLID estimate, while the census estimate of aggregate total income of individuals is 2.3% higher. Most of the observed provincial differences were considered acceptable in the light of sampling errors in the Survey. The all-person low income prevalence rates for Canada (excluding the Territories) were almost identical in both sources for the before-tax measure at 15.3% and only slightly higher (0.6 percentage points) in census than SLID for the after-tax rate.

Note: Earnings historical variations

Due to improved collection methodology, income and earnings data from the 2006 Census is more complete, precise and less subject to rounding than in prior censuses. Small dollar amounts, which in the past may not have been reported, are now more likely to be captured. Compared to prior censuses, this has resulted in an increased number of earners and lower median and average earnings. Users are advised to exercise caution when interpreting census-to-census changes in statistics and counts of specific cells within an earnings distribution. This comparability issue is less apparent when considering the earnings of full-year, full-time workers.

Note: Income Data for Seniors in Collective Dwellings

In the 2006 Census, individuals who resided in institutions or residences with distinct, separate living quarters, and who were able to complete the census questionnaire, received their own census form to complete. These individuals were excluded from measurements of income in prior censuses. This census their incomes have been set to zero. This results in a slight overestimation in the count of population 15 years and over, and primarily the age group 65 years and over, without income (or without earnings). Counts and income statistics for families or persons not in families are not affected, as individuals in these types of collective dwellings have always, and continue to be excluded from those populations.

Note: Income suppression

Area suppression is the deletion of all characteristic data for geographic areas with populations below a specified size. Income distributions and related statistics are suppressed if the population in the area, excluding institutional residents, is less than 250 from either the 100% or the 20% database, or if the number of private households is less than 40 from the 20% database.

Tables with income, after-tax income or earnings distributions

Income, after-tax income and earnings distributions have been suppressed where the estimated total number of units (persons, families or households) in the reference year is less than 250. All suppressed cells and associated averages, medians and standard errors of average income, average after-tax income or average earnings have been replaced with zeroes or symbols.

In all cases, suppressed data are included in the appropriate higher aggregate subtotals and totals.

Tables with number and median or average income, after-tax income or earnings

Statistics have been suppressed if the estimated total number of persons (males, females or both sexes) with income, after-tax income or earnings in the reference year is less than 250 persons. All suppressed counts and associated averages and medians have been replaced by zeroes or symbols.

In all cases, suppressed data are included in the appropriate higher aggregate subtotals and totals.

Note: Institutional residents

People in seniors' residences in the 2006 Census are classified as 'not living in an institution'. This is a change from the 2001 Census where they were classified as institutional residents, specifically, 'living in an institution, resident under care or custody'.

Note: Non-permanent residents and the census universe

In the 2006 Census, non-permanent residents are defined as people from another country who, at the time of the census, held a Work or Study Permit, or who were refugee claimants, as well as family members living in Canada with them. In the 1991, 1996 and 2001 censuses, non-permanent residents also included persons who held a Minister's permit; this was discontinued by Citizenship and Immigration Canada prior to the 2006 Census.

From 1991 on, the Census of Population has enumerated both permanent and non-permanent residents of Canada. Prior to 1991, only permanent residents of Canada were included in the census. (The only exception to this occurred in 1941.) Non-permanent residents were considered foreign residents and were not enumerated.

Total population counts, as well as counts for all variables, are affected by this change in the census universe. Users should be especially careful when comparing data from 1991, 1996, 2001 or 2006 with data from previous censuses in geographic areas where there is a concentration of non-permanent residents.

Today in Canada, non-permanent residents make up a significant segment of the population, especially in several census metropolitan areas. Their presence can affect the demand for such government services as health care, schooling, employment programs and language training. The inclusion of non-permanent residents in the census facilitates comparisons with provincial and territorial statistics (marriages, divorces, births and deaths) which include this population. In addition, this inclusion of non-permanent residents brings Canadian practice closer to the United Nations (UN) recommendation that long-term residents (persons living in a country for one year or longer) be enumerated in the census.

Although every attempt has been made to enumerate non-permanent residents, factors such as language difficulties, the reluctance to complete a government form or to understand the need to participate may have affected the enumeration of this population.

For additional information, please refer to the 2006 Census Dictionary, catalogue number 92-566-XWE.

For counts of the non-permanent resident population in 1991, 2001 and 2006, please refer to the 2006 Census table 97-557-XCB2006006.

Note: Population universe

The population universe of the 2006 Census includes the following groups:
- Canadian citizens (by birth or by naturalization) and landed immigrants with a usual place of residence in Canada;
- Canadian citizens (by birth or by naturalization) and landed immigrants who are abroad, either on a military base or attached to a diplomatic mission;
- Canadian citizens (by birth or by naturalization) and landed immigrants at sea or in port aboard merchant vessels under Canadian registry;
- persons with a usual place of residence in Canada who are claiming refugee status and members of their families living with them;
- persons with a usual place of residence in Canada who hold Study Permits and members of their families living with them;
- persons with a usual place of residence in Canada who hold Work Permits and members of their families living with them.

For census purposes, the last three groups in this list are referred to as 'non-permanent residents'. For further information, refer to the variable Immigration: Non-permanent resident found in the 2006 Census Dictionary, catalogue number 92-566-XWE.

Data table

Select data categories for this table

This table details after-tax income groups , age groups , highest certificate, diploma or degree and sex for the population 15 years and over in CanadaFootnote 1
After-tax income groups (22) Highest certificate, diploma or degree (6)
Total - Highest certificate, diploma or degree No certificate, diploma or degree High school certificate or equivalent Apprenticeship or trades certificate or diploma College, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma University certificate, diploma or degree
Total - After-tax income groupsFootnote 2 25,664,220 6,098,325 6,553,425 2,785,420 4,435,135 5,791,915
Without after-tax income 1,245,615 825,865 227,095 39,955 62,480 90,215
With after-tax income 24,418,615 5,272,455 6,326,330 2,745,465 4,372,655 5,701,700
Under $2,000Footnote 3 1,400,865 505,645 385,540 103,245 165,390 241,050
$2,000 to $4,999 1,200,740 396,930 400,175 74,530 148,970 180,135
$5,000 to $6,999 900,515 265,085 306,125 68,595 122,060 138,655
$7,000 to $9,999 1,543,920 473,075 505,500 127,695 212,500 225,155
$10,000 to $11,999 1,082,800 322,000 341,090 100,155 158,055 161,510
$12,000 to $14,999 1,707,935 568,385 488,230 167,740 240,405 243,160
$15,000 to $19,999 2,795,175 869,135 772,820 325,085 436,550 391,590
$20,000 to $24,999 2,331,580 543,310 640,785 322,105 440,850 384,525
$25,000 to $29,999 2,232,550 419,040 597,400 325,305 471,225 419,585
$30,000 to $34,999 1,997,635 302,775 511,975 284,165 448,580 450,140
$35,000 to $39,999 1,626,090 200,265 397,440 219,675 375,170 433,535
$40,000 to $44,999 1,267,310 130,155 286,440 165,460 286,650 398,600
$45,000 to $49,999 991,340 85,115 193,335 125,375 217,560 369,950
$50,000 to $54,999 761,520 55,790 131,670 91,005 166,260 316,795
$55,000 to $59,999 596,805 37,840 97,195 68,040 129,970 263,760
$60,000 and over 1,981,820 97,915 270,605 177,280 352,455 1,083,565
Median after-tax income $Footnote 4 23,307 15,523 19,744 26,236 27,741 35,168
Average after-tax income $Footnote 5 29,214 18,696 24,166 29,428 31,069 43,014
Standard error of average after-tax income $Footnote 6 20 24 26 35 30 69


Footnote 1

Excludes census data for one or more incompletely enumerated Indian reserves or Indian settlements.

Return to footnote 1 referrer

Footnote 2

'Total income' refers to the total money income received from the following sources during calendar year 2005 by persons 15 years of age and over:

- wages and salaries (total)
- net farm income
- net non-farm income from unincorporated business and/or professional practice
- child benefits
- Old Age Security pension and Guaranteed Income Supplement
- benefits from Canada or Quebec Pension Plan
- benefits from Employment Insurance
- other income from government sources
- dividends, interest on bonds, deposits and savings certificates, and other investment income
- retirement pensions, superannuation and annuities, including those from RRSPs and RRIFs
- other money income.

'After-tax income' refers to total income from all sources minus federal, provincial and territorial income taxes paid for 2005.

Receipts not counted as income - The income concept excludes gambling gains and losses, lottery prizes, money inherited during the year in a lump sum, capital gains or losses, receipts from the sale of property, income tax refunds, loan payments received, lump-sum settlements of insurance policies, rebates received on property taxes, refunds of pension contributions, as well as all income 'in kind,' such as free meals and living accommodations, or agricultural products produced and consumed on the farm.

Average income of individuals - Average income of individuals refers to the weighted mean total income of individuals 15 years of age and over who reported income for 2005. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of individuals (e.g., males 45 to 54 years of age) by the number of individuals with income in that group.

Median income of individuals - The median income of a specified group of income recipients is that amount which divides their income size distribution into two halves, i.e., the incomes of the first half of individuals are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median income is calculated from the unrounded number of individuals (e.g., males 45 to 54 years of age) with income in that group.

Standard error of average income - Refers to the estimated standard error of average income for an income size distribution. If interpreted as shown below, it serves as a rough indicator of the precision of the corresponding estimate of average income. For about 68% of the samples which could be selected from the sample frame, the difference between the sample estimate of average income and the corresponding figure based on complete enumeration would be less than one standard error. For about 95% of the possible samples, the difference would be less than two standard errors and, in about 99% of the samples, the difference would be less than approximately two and one half standard errors.

Average and median incomes and standard errors of average income of individuals will be calculated for those individuals who are at least 15 years of age and who have an income (positive or negative). For all other universes (families [census/economic]), persons 15 years of age and over not in families or private households), these statistics will be calculated over all units, whether or not they reported any income.

These statistics can be derived for after-tax income, earnings, wages and salaries, or any other particular source of income in the same manner.

Return to footnote 2 referrer

Footnote 3

Including loss.

Return to footnote 3 referrer

Footnote 4

For persons with after-tax income.

Return to footnote 4 referrer

Footnote 5

For persons with after-tax income.

Return to footnote 5 referrer

Footnote 6

For persons with after-tax income.

Return to footnote 6 referrer

Source: Statistics Canada, 2006 Census of Population, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 97-563-XCB2006011.


Download data as displayed in the Data table tab

Download entire table


Footnote a

To access the comma separated values (CSV) file, use the conversion features available in most spreadsheet software, or use a free viewer, for example csview.

Return to footnote a referrer

Footnote b

To access the tab separated values (TAB) file, use the conversion features available in most spreadsheet software, or use a free viewer, for example AscToTab.

Return to footnote b referrer

Footnote c

To access the Beyond 20/20 (IVT) version, you need the Beyond 20/20 Table Browser, which may be downloaded below. These links download files directly from an external site and are not the responsibility of Statistics Canada.

Beyond 20/20 Browser for Windows operating systems (18.9 MB)
To install this product, run 'ProBrowser.exe'.

Return to footnote c referrer

Footnote d

XML (SDMX - ML) - Is a statistical data and metadata exchange standard for the electronic exchange of statistical information. Two extensible mark-up language (XML) files are provided in a compressed bundle.

Return to footnote d referrer

Related data