2006 Census Topic-based tabulations

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Topic-based tabulation: Mode of Transportation (9), Employment Income Groups (14), Age Groups (9) and Sex (3) for Employed Labour Force 15 Years and Over Having a Usual Place of Work, for Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions of Work, 2006 Census - 20% Sample Data

About this tabulation

General information

Catalogue number :97-561-XCB2006015
Release date :July 29, 2008
Topic :Place of work and commuting to work
Data dimensions :


Note: Data Quality - Historical earnings and income data and outliers

Changes in methodology and response modes introduced in the 2006 Census resulted in improved income data. However, these changes also mean that some comparisons with data from previous censuses and some data for the highest earnings and income amounts are affected.

For the 2006 Census, changes to methods for capturing and processing the 2006 Census income data and the introduction of data from tax files may have an impact on the trends analysis for earnings at the individual level in particular (but also total income).

There are more reported small amounts in 2006 and less rounding of the amounts that now come from tax data. To compare from census to census, users are advised to consider full-year full-time earners as the presence of more small amounts tends to lower the mean and median when considering the full population of earners.

As in the past, when considering small populations, one or more outliers may affect the average. In regions with sampling, this makes the estimate of the mean unreliable because of the variance due to sampling for smaller populations. The standard error of the average should help identify these situations. With extremely small populations, the median might also be affected by the presence of outliers. Users are required to interpret data with caution when the sub-population has small or very small counts.

Note: Data Quality - Relationship of Census Income Estimates to the National Accounts and Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics

Census income estimates of aggregate income in 2005 were compared to similar personal income estimates from the national accounts. After adjustments to the personal income estimates for differences in concepts and coverage, the census estimate of aggregate income in 2005 from comparable sources was 1.2% lower than the national accounts estimate. As in the past, census estimates for some income components and for some provinces compared more favourably than for others.

Census estimates of aggregate wages and salaries, the largest component of income, were slightly higher (1.0%) than the national accounts estimates. This was partially offset by the difference (-7.8%) between the census estimates of aggregate self-employment income from both farm and non-farm self-employment and the adjusted national accounts figures. Overall, estimates of aggregate employment income or earnings were nearly identical (0.3% difference).

Census estimates of Old Age Security pensions and the Guaranteed Income Supplement were slightly lower (-1.4%), as they were for Canada/Quebec Pension Plan benefits (-0.9%), than adjusted national accounts estimates. Employment Insurance benefits reported in the census were smaller by 6.1%. Census estimates of aggregate child benefits were 2.0% higher than the adjusted national accounts estimates. Census estimates of other government transfer payments, which include such items as social welfare benefits, provincial income supplements to seniors, veterans' pensions and GST/HST/QST refunds, were significantly below (-39.2%) the estimates from the national accounts. Overall, census estimates of aggregate income from all government transfer payments were lower by 12.0%. The census estimate of aggregate investment income in 2005 was slightly lower (-2.7%) than the comparable national accounts estimate. This is a significant improvement when compared to previous census comparisons.

Census income statistics were also compared with similar statistics from the annual Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID). SLID estimates reflect adjustments made for population undercoverage, while census estimates do not include such an adjustment. This adjustment contributes to census estimates showing fewer income recipients (-2.1%) and earners (-1.4%) than SLID estimates. However, due to higher average amounts, census estimates of aggregate earnings are 2.8% higher than the SLID estimate, while the census estimate of aggregate total income of individuals is 2.3% higher. Most of the observed provincial differences were considered acceptable in the light of sampling errors in the Survey. The all-person low income prevalence rates for Canada (excluding the Territories) were almost identical in both sources for the before-tax measure at 15.3% and only slightly higher (0.6 percentage points) in census than SLID for the after-tax rate.

Note: Comparability of 2006 Place of work data

Working at home can be measured in different ways. In the census, the 'Worked at home' category includes persons who live and work at the same physical location, such as farmers, teleworkers and work camp workers. In addition, the 2006 Census Guide instructed persons who worked part of the time at home and part of the time at an employer's address to indicate that they 'Worked at home' if most of their time was spent working at home (e.g., three days out of five).

Other Statistics Canada surveys such as the General Social Survey, the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, and the Workplace and Employee Survey also collect information on working at home. However, the survey data are not directly comparable to the census data since the surveys ask respondents whether they did some or all of their paid work at home, whereas the census asks them where they usually worked most of the time. Consequently, census estimates on work at home are lower than survey estimates.

The place-of-work question has remained in virtually the same format in each census since 1971. However, in 1996, the category 'No fixed workplace address' replaced 'No usual place of work.' In 1996, the census questionnaire was modified by adding a check box for the 'No fixed workplace' response category. In previous censuses, respondents were asked to write 'No usual place of work' in the address fields. It is believed that previous censuses have undercounted the number of persons with 'No fixed workplace address.'

Annexations, incorporations and amalgamations of municipalities could create some difficulties when comparing spatial units and structures which change over time.

For additional information, please refer to the 2006 Census Dictionary, Catalogue number 92-566-XWE.

Note: Earnings historical variations

Due to improved collection methodology, income and earnings data from the 2006 Census is more complete, precise and less subject to rounding than in prior censuses. Small dollar amounts, which in the past may not have been reported, are now more likely to be captured. Compared to prior censuses, this has resulted in an increased number of earners and lower median and average earnings. Users are advised to exercise caution when interpreting census-to-census changes in statistics and counts of specific cells within an earnings distribution. This comparability issue is less apparent when considering the earnings of full-year, full-time workers.

Note: Impact of municipal restructuring

The boundaries and names of municipalities (census subdivisions) can change from one census to the next because of annexations, dissolutions and incorporations. To bridge the impact of these municipal changes on data dissemination, the 2006 Census team is producing a profile for dissolved census subdivisions. For additional information, please refer to the 2006 Census Dictionary, catalogue number 92-566-XWE.

Note: Income Data for Seniors in Collective Dwellings

In the 2006 Census, individuals who resided in institutions or residences with distinct, separate living quarters, and who were able to complete the census questionnaire, received their own census form to complete. These individuals were excluded from measurements of income in prior censuses. This census their incomes have been set to zero. This results in a slight overestimation in the count of population 15 years and over, and primarily the age group 65 years and over, without income (or without earnings). Counts and income statistics for families or persons not in families are not affected, as individuals in these types of collective dwellings have always, and continue to be excluded from those populations.

Note: Income suppression

Area suppression is the deletion of all characteristic data for geographic areas with populations below a specified size. Income distributions and related statistics are suppressed if the population in the area, excluding institutional residents, is less than 250 from either the 100% or the 20% database, or if the number of private households is less than 40 from the 20% database.

Tables with income, after-tax income or earnings distributions

Income, after-tax income and earnings distributions have been suppressed where the estimated total number of units (persons, families or households) in the reference year is less than 250. All suppressed cells and associated averages, medians and standard errors of average income, average after-tax income or average earnings have been replaced with zeroes or symbols.

In all cases, suppressed data are included in the appropriate higher aggregate subtotals and totals.

Tables with number and median or average income, after-tax income or earnings

Statistics have been suppressed if the estimated total number of persons (males, females or both sexes) with income, after-tax income or earnings in the reference year is less than 250 persons. All suppressed counts and associated averages and medians have been replaced by zeroes or symbols.

In all cases, suppressed data are included in the appropriate higher aggregate subtotals and totals.

Note: Non-permanent residents and the census universe

In the 2006 Census, non-permanent residents are defined as people from another country who, at the time of the census, held a Work or Study Permit, or who were refugee claimants, as well as family members living in Canada with them. In the 1991, 1996 and 2001 censuses, non-permanent residents also included persons who held a Minister's permit; this was discontinued by Citizenship and Immigration Canada prior to the 2006 Census.

From 1991 on, the Census of Population has enumerated both permanent and non-permanent residents of Canada. Prior to 1991, only permanent residents of Canada were included in the census. (The only exception to this occurred in 1941.) Non-permanent residents were considered foreign residents and were not enumerated.

Total population counts, as well as counts for all variables, are affected by this change in the census universe. Users should be especially careful when comparing data from 1991, 1996, 2001 or 2006 with data from previous censuses in geographic areas where there is a concentration of non-permanent residents.

Today in Canada, non-permanent residents make up a significant segment of the population, especially in several census metropolitan areas. Their presence can affect the demand for such government services as health care, schooling, employment programs and language training. The inclusion of non-permanent residents in the census facilitates comparisons with provincial and territorial statistics (marriages, divorces, births and deaths) which include this population. In addition, this inclusion of non-permanent residents brings Canadian practice closer to the United Nations (UN) recommendation that long-term residents (persons living in a country for one year or longer) be enumerated in the census.

Although every attempt has been made to enumerate non-permanent residents, factors such as language difficulties, the reluctance to complete a government form or to understand the need to participate may have affected the enumeration of this population.

For additional information, please refer to the 2006 Census Dictionary, catalogue number 92-566-XWE.

For counts of the non-permanent resident population in 1991, 2001 and 2006, please refer to the 2006 Census table 97-557-XCB2006006.

Additional information about this table is available in the Dimension Summary Box of the variable Sex (3).

Data table

Select data categories for this table

This table details mode of transportation , employment income groups , age groups and sex for employed labour force 15 years and over having a usual place of work in Canada
Employment income groups (14) Mode of transportation (9)
Total - Mode of transportation Car, truck, van, as driver Car, truck, van, as passenger Public transit Walked Bicycle Motorcycle Taxicab Other method
Total - Employment income groupsFootnote 1 13,069,895 9,350,050 987,265 1,515,570 894,990 181,260 18,145 26,640 95,980
Without employment income 546,070 299,025 72,870 86,635 63,275 11,005 845 1,850 10,560
With employment incomeFootnote 2 12,523,825 9,051,025 914,390 1,428,935 831,715 170,255 17,300 24,785 85,415
Less than $10,000Footnote 3 2,037,340 1,068,940 318,030 321,750 250,725 43,305 3,185 7,200 24,200
$10,000 to $19,999 1,884,855 1,224,870 159,855 265,035 180,540 28,535 2,080 7,060 16,870
$20,000 to $29,999 1,808,385 1,304,390 126,825 214,060 125,120 21,185 1,930 4,100 10,780
$30,000 to $39,999 1,795,620 1,378,140 106,570 188,720 91,135 19,120 1,930 2,155 7,845
$40,000 to $49,999 1,437,310 1,147,610 70,770 138,325 56,965 14,950 2,140 1,300 5,250
$50,000 to $59,999 1,034,615 842,945 46,175 90,355 37,340 11,515 1,645 715 3,925
$60,000 to $79,999 1,346,040 1,109,990 51,200 108,010 49,690 17,015 2,530 890 6,720
$80,000 and over 1,179,660 974,140 34,960 102,680 40,195 14,630 1,855 1,365 9,830
Median employment income $Footnote 4 32,635 36,441 18,465 25,615 18,934 25,862 37,478 16,978 21,119
Average employment income $Footnote 5 41,975 46,179 26,337 34,566 28,203 36,566 42,342 32,827 35,261
Standard error of average employment income $Footnote 6 44 56 122 87 104 336 615 1,788 339


Footnote 1

Earnings or employment income - Refers to total income received by persons 15 years of age and over during calendar year 2005 as wages and salaries, net income from a non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice, and/or net farm self-employment income.

Wages and salaries - Refers to gross wages and salaries before deductions for such items as income tax, pensions and Employment Insurance. Included in this source are military pay and allowances, tips, commissions and cash bonuses, benefits from wage-loss replacement plans or income-maintenance insurance plans, supplementary unemployment benefits from an employer or union as well as all types of casual earnings during calendar year 2005. Other employment income such as taxable benefits, research grants and royalties are included.

Net farm income - Refers to net income (gross receipts from farm sales minus depreciation and cost of operation) received during calendar year 2005 from the operation of a farm, either on the respondent's own account or in partnership. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share of income was reported. Included with gross receipts are cash advances received in 2005, dividends from cooperatives, rebates and farm support payments to farmers from federal, provincial and regional agricultural programs (For example, milk subsidies and marketing board payments) and gross insurance proceeds such as payments from the Net Income Stabilization Account (NISA). The value of income 'in kind,' such as agricultural products produced and consumed on the farm, is excluded.

Net non-farm income - Refers to net income (gross receipts minus expenses of operation such as wages, rents and depreciation) received during calendar year 2005 from the respondent's non-farm unincorporated business or professional practice. In the case of partnerships, only the respondent's share was reported. Also included is net income from persons babysitting in their own homes, persons providing room and board to non relatives, self-employed fishers, hunters and trappers, operators of direct distributorships such as those selling and delivering cosmetics, as well as freelance activities of artists, writers, music teachers, hairdressers, dressmakers, etc.

Receipts not counted as income - The income concept excludes gambling gains and losses, lottery prizes, money inherited during the year in a lump sum, capital gains or losses, receipts from the sale of property, income tax refunds, loan payments received, lump sum settlements of insurance policies, rebates received on property taxes, refunds of pension contributions as well as all income 'in kind,' such as free meals and living accommodations, or agricultural products produced and consumed on the farm.

Average income of individuals - Average income of individuals refers to the weighted mean total income of individuals 15 years of age and over who reported income for 2005. Average income is calculated from unrounded data by dividing the aggregate income of a specified group of individuals (e.g., males 45 to 54 years of age) by the number of individuals with income in that group.

Median income of individuals - The median income of a specified group of income recipients is that amount which divides their income size distribution into two halves, i.e., the incomes of the first half of individuals are below the median, while those of the second half are above the median. Median income is calculated from the unrounded number of individuals (e.g., males 45 to 54 years of age) with income in that group.

Standard error of average income - Refers to the estimated standard error of average income for an income size distribution. If interpreted as shown below, it serves as a rough indicator of the precision of the corresponding estimate of average income. For about 68% of the samples which could be selected from the sample frame, the difference between the sample estimate of average income and the corresponding figure based on complete enumeration would be less than one standard error. For about 95% of the possible samples, the difference would be less than two standard errors and, in about 99% of the samples, the difference would be less than approximately two and one half standard errors.

Average and median incomes and standard errors of average income of individuals will be calculated for those individuals who are at least 15 years of age and who have an income (positive or negative). For all other universes (families (census/economic), persons 15 years of age and over not in families or private households), these statistics will be calculated over all units, whether or not they reported any income.

These statistics can be derived for after-tax income, earnings, wages and salaries, or any other particular source of income in the same manner.

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Footnote 2

Earner or employment income recipient - Refers to a person 15 years of age and over who received wages and salaries, net income from a non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice, and/or net farm self-employment income during calendar year 2005.

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Footnote 3

Including loss.

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Footnote 4

For persons with employment income.

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Footnote 5

For persons with employment income.

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Footnote 6

For persons with employment income.

Return to footnote 6 referrer

Source: Statistics Canada, 2006 Census of Population, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 97-561-XCB2006015.


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